In the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM), every operation has a specific gas cost associated with it, which is used to measure the computational resources required to execute the operation on the Ethereum network.
The gas costs for EVM operations are specified in the Ethereum Yellow Paper, which is the formal specification of the Ethereum protocol. The Yellow Paper defines the EVM and its instruction set, as well as the gas costs for each operation.
The Yellow Paper is authored by Dr. Gavin Wood, a co-founder of Ethereum and the founder of Parity Technologies. The document is maintained by the Ethereum Foundation, which is the nonprofit organization that oversees the development of the Ethereum ecosystem.
Developers who are working with the Ethereum Virtual Machine can refer to the Yellow Paper to understand the gas costs associated with different operations, and can use this information to optimize their smart contracts and transactions for efficiency and cost-effectiveness.